What are Verbals?
In English grammar verbals are forms of the verb used as nouns, adjectives, and adverbs. The –ing form of the verb is used as a noun or an adjective. The past participle is used as an adjective. The infinitive is used as a noun, adjective or an adverb.
1. The –ING form used as a noun (Gerund).
- Writing is considered an art.
- Constant smoking is harmful.
- Traveling alone is not much fun.
b) Object of the verb
- I like reading.
- He dislikes flying alone.
- The student considered buying a car.
c) Object of a preposition
- He left without telling me where he was going.
- After eating his supper, he left for the movies.
- The t-37 is used for training pilots.
d) Object of a Verb –Preposition compound
- He believes in studying every day.
- She objected to doing her homework.
- He is looking forward to seeing his old friend.
e) In apposition
- He likes his work,flying jets.
- His hobby, collecting stamps, is interesting.
- The students had several interests: taking pictures, reading books, playing football.
f) Predicate noun
- His work is driving trucks.
- Her hobby was painting pictures.
- John’s favorite sport is boxing.
2. The –ING form used as an adjective.
a) Attributive (preceding the noun)
- A rapidly growing population is one of our problems.
- The idea of an expanding universe is new.
- The aircraft engine makes a humming noise.
b) Predicate Adjective (following the linking verb)
- The show was exciting.
- Your story is veryinteresting.
- Aviation is fascinating.
c) Appositive Adjective
- The students, working fast, soon finished their assignments.
- The waiter gave the drink to the girl sitting at the table.
- The airplane taxiingon the runway is ready take of.
- Jack is the boy sittingover there.
3. Past participle used as an adjective.
- The written examination was difficult.
- He is a well-educated man.
- The senator is a polished speaker.
- I have a broken DVD.
b) Predicate Adjective
- My take is broken.
- He seems hurt.
- The store is closed.
- The picture takenby Jim was very good.
- The plane damaged by the storm is being repaired.
- The tapes used in the lab are very helpful.
- I enjoyed the party given in the officers Club.
- He was an officer respected for his courage.
4. Infinitive used as a noun
- To speak English is easy.
- To concentrate is important.
- To work together is our duty.
b) Object of the verb
- They wanted to go.
- He refused to pay his debts.
- We plan to leave early.
c) In Apposition
- Their desire to speak English is strong.
- The instructor reminded him of his duty to learn grammar.
- His decision to leave was a wise one.
d) Predicate Noun
- His aim is to finish the course as soon as possible.
- Their plan is to leave as soon as possible.
- Her ambition was to become an actress.
e) The infinitive is often used with the dummy subject it, as in the following pattern:
- It is better to think before you act.
- It is sometimes better to remain silent.
- It is foolish to leave in this stormy weather.
5. Infinitive used as an adjective.
- The thing to tell them is that you can’t go.
- They have a lot of work to do.
- This is the time to speak.
6. Infinitive used as an adverb.
- He stopped to smoke a cigarette.
- I came to learn English.
- A good example is difficult to find.
7. Omission of to in the infinitive.
The to of the infinitive is not used after can, may, must, will, shall, and a few verbal phrases; namely, had rather, had better, had just as soon. It is not used after a few verbs like make, help, let, which are related in meaning to can, may or must, in that they involve obligation, permission or request.
- You must go now.
- You can help.
- You had better take some medicine.
- I had just as soon stay home.
- I had rather stay.
- He made me study.
- They let him go home
- Help him move the piano.
8. Verbs followed only by infinitive (as object)
- Example: I don’t care to meet him.
9. Verbs followed only by gerund (as object)
- Example: He admits stealing the money.