Grammar Basics and Tips
  • Grammar Basics and Tips

    March 23, 2015

    Grammar Basics Welcome to the grammar lessons of English for Dummies. In this area you will find useful constructions and tips.  Each lesson has practical examples. English Grammar Free exercises, tips and lessons. What is Grammar? Formal Grammar Parts of Speech The basic to start learning English Grammar is to understand the parts of speech. […]

  • Isolated Function Words

    March 21, 2015

    Function Words What are Isolated Function Words? There are a number of specialized words and phrases that occur in isolation from regular sentence structures. They are found primarily in dialogue situations, where they act as cues or signals. They should be mastered by anyone who desires to use spoken English with full effectiveness.  They are […]

  • Question words

    Function Words How we identify question words? Question words may be partially identified by their initial phoneme how or wh (what, who, when, how, etc) though this cue is shared with their homophones among the relative pronouns (see subordinators here).   A further clue is their initial position in direct or indirect questions. How are you? […]

  • Subordinators

    Function Words Subordinators   1. The relative pronouns like who, whose, that, which, where, when, etc. These introduce sentence like patters which they subordinate to some element of the main clause (or to the sentence as a whole) (See adjective and noun clause patterns Unit II) They occur most commonly directly after a noun or […]

  • Connectives

    Function Words What are connectives? Connective words are used to join different thoughts. Properly speaking, all connectives are conjunctions, but we generally limit the definition to such words as perform the office of uniting propositions; or, less frequently, the terms of a proposition.   A distinction may be made between coordinating connectives (conjunctions) and linking […]

  • Qualifiers

    Function Words What are Qualifiers? Qualifiers closely resemble adverbs but differ from them in having no exact lexical meanings.  They serve to define the relative validity or applicability of the word they modify.   The most common are: A bit less least A little mighty (colloq.) so pretty more real (colloq) quite most enough rather […]

  • Prepositions

    Function Words What is a preposition? In English we cannot have a noun or pronoun modifying a verb directly.  Sometimes it is not desirable to place the noun or pronoun as a direct modifier, even of another noun. We have few little words (about twenty-five in common use) which serve to make the connection indirectly […]

  • Auxiliaries

    Function Words What is an auxiliary? An auxiliary is a short verb prefixed to one of the principal parts of other verb, to express some particular mode and time of being, action, or passion.  The auxiliaries are do, be, have, shall, will, may, can, and must, with their variations.   The most common auxiliaries are […]

  • Function Words

    What are function words? Proponents of the structural approach to grammar make a useful distinction between words which have a lexical meaning (nouns, verbs, adjectives, adverbs) and those which merely show relationship or degree (determiners, qualifiers, auxiliaries, prepositions, etc.) The latter are called function words.  Few of them show any formal features that permit positive […]