Parts of Speech
The Structural Determination of Parts of Speech
We are not so much concerned with defining the parts of speech as with enabling the student to recognize them in context. The definition of a noun (for example) only becomes meaningful after the student has seen and recognized many particular nouns in particular verb structures.
It should be noticed that the structural approach to the recognition and definition of parts of speech departs somewhat from the methods and terminology of traditional grammar. The student who is at all familiar with traditional English Grammar will need to approach the present treatment without preconceptions.
In accordance with their use in the sentence, words are divided into eight classes called parts of speech, – namely, nouns, pronouns, adjectives, adverbs, prepositions, conjunctions, and interjections.
Nouns – A noun is the name of a person, place, or thing.
Examples: Elizabeth, sister, engineer, star, window, singer.
Pronouns – A pronoun is a word used instead of a noun. It designates a person, place, or thing without naming it.
Examples: he, his, him, she, her, that, who.
Adjective – An adjective is a word which describes or limits a substantive. Most adjectives describe as well as limit.
Examples: square, small, wooden.
Verbs – A verb is a word which can assert something (usually an action) concerning a person, place, or thing.
Examples: The wind blows
Adverbs – An adverb is a word which modifies a verb, an adjective, or another verb.
To modify a word is to change or affect its meaning in some way.
Most adverbs answer the question “How?” “When?” “Where?” or “To what degree or extent?”
Prepositions – A preposition is a word placed before a substantive toshow its relation to some other word in the sentence.
The substantive which follows a preposition is called its object.
Conjunctions – A conjunction connects words or groups of words
A conjunction differs from a preposition in having no object, and in indicating a less definite relation between the words which it connects.
Interjections – An interjection is a cry or other exclamatory sound expressing surprise, anger, pleasure, or some other emotion or feeling.
Interjections usually have no grammatical connection with the groups of words in which they stand; hence their name which means “thrown in”
Examples: Oh! I forgot. Ah, how I miss you! Bravo! Alas!
Source: An Advanced English Grammar: With Exercises By George Lyman Kittredge, Frank Edgar Farley
We recommend the following free Grammar E-Books:
The parts of speech: an easy grammar for beginners By Willian B. Irvine
An Advanced English Grammar: With Exercises By George Lyman Kittredge, Frank Edgar Farley