Content English Grammar

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Grammar Basics

What is Grammar?

Formal Grammar

Parts of Speech

  1. Nouns
  2. Verbs
  3. Adjectives
  4. Adverbs
  5. Conjunctions

Function Words

Auxiliaries
Prepositions
Qualifiers
Connectives
Subordinators
Question words

Isolated Function Words
Substitutes for Parts Of Speech
Basic Elements of the Sentence

Types of Subject
Types of Verbs
Types of Complements

Subordinate Elements of the Sentence

The Subject and its Modifiers
The Verb and its Modifiers
The Complement and its Modifiers

Sentence Patterns

Simple Sentence
Compound Sentence
Complex Sentence

Tense Forms and Usage

Simple Verb Phrase
Perfect Verb Phrase
Future Verb Phrase. (Will and Shall)
Progressive Verb Phrase
Comparison of Past Tense and Present Perfect Tense
Conditional Patterns
Subjunctive Patterns

Variety in Sentence Structure

Verbs as Complements

a)Verbs that use the Ing form.

b)Verbs that use the infinitive form.

c)Sentences that don’t change meaning using Gerund or Infinitive

d)Sentences that have different meaning

e)Sentences that the require the ING form with Prepositions

f)Sentences that require the infinitive form with adjectives

g)Pronoun before the Infinitive

h)Verb -Ing plus possessive form

i)Need

j)Subjunctives

Verbals

1.The –ING form used as a noun (Gerund).

2.The –ING form used as an adjective

3.Past participle used as an adjective.

4.Infinitive used as a noun

5.Infinitive used as an adjective.

6.Infinitive used as an adverb.

7.Omission of to in the infinitive.

8.Verbs followed only by infinitive (as object)

9.Verbs followed only by gerund (as object)

Problems with Verbs

  1. Verbs That Require an Infinitive or –Ing Form in the Complement
  2. Participles
  3. Necessity, Usually For Repair Or Improvement (need)
  4. Ability (know)
  5. Past Custom (used to)
  6. Logical Conclusions (must have, must be)
  7. Advisability (had better)
  8. Question Forms for Invitation and Customs (would)
  9. Preference (would rather)
  10. Unfulfilled Desires in The Past (had hoped)
  11. Conditions (will, can, may must, would, could, might, should)
  12. Desires (wish that)
  13. Contrary to Fact Statements (If were, wish that)
  14. Subjunctives (advise, desire, etc)
  15. Impersonal Expressions (essential, necessary, suggested, etc)
  16. Causatives (have, let, make, let)
  17. Tag Questions
  18. More Tag Questions
  19. More Tag Questions
  20. Affirmative Agreement (and so we were)
  21. Negative Agreement (and neither am I)
  22. Negative Imperatives (please don’t)

Problems with Pronouns

  1. -Ing Form Modified By Possessive Pronouns
  2. Subject and Object Pronouns
  3. Propositions with Object Pronouns
  4. Relative Pronouns Which Refers To Persons
  5. Relative Pronouns Which Refer To Persons and Things

Two Word Verbs -Phrasal Verbs

a) Two Word Verbs – Group I

b) Two Word Verbs – Group II

c) Two Word Verbs – Group III

English Regular and Irregular Verbs

English Regular Verbs

Regular Verbs – A
Regular Verbs – B – C
Regular Verbs – D – E
Regular Verbs – F – G – H – I
Regular Verbs – J – K – L -M -O
Regular Verbs – P
Regular Verbs – Q – R
Regular Verbs – S
Regular Verbs – T -U -V -W- X- Y- Z

English Irregular Verbs

Irregular Verbs – A – B – C – D – E
Irregular Verbs – F – G – H – I – J – K – L
Irregular Verbs – M – N – O
Irregular Verbs – P – Q – R
Irregular Verbs – S – T
Irregular Verbs – U – V – X – Y – Z

Useful Lists for ESL learners

Regular and Irregular English Verbs

Two Word Verbs

Verb+Prepositions Combinations

List of Simple and Compound Prepositions

Compound Prepositions List